It occurs widespread throughout North America, in the U.S. and Canada. All photographs by Rodney G. Lym.North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station NDSU Extension Service. State Rank Reason(see State Rankabove) Cynoglossum officinaleis a plant native to western Asia and eastern Europe and introduced into North America (Jacobs and Sing 2007). Houndstongue forms a rosette the first year of growth (Figure 1a) and bolts and flowers the second season. Most infestations are found on coarse, gravelly to sandy alkaline soils up to 9,000 feet elevation. Die etwa 75 Arten der Gattung Cynoglossum sind vorwiegend in den Tropen und Subtropen fast weltweit verbreitet. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.) Identification and Control STOP THE SPREAD. Cynoglossum officinale. Cynoglossum hybridum Thuill. How do I control this plant? The burrs can be problematic for hikers, hunters and fishermen, and also to their pets. First-year houndstongue rosettes can be controlled with 2,4-D at 2 pints/A applied from late May to mid-June. The plant is a member of the Borage family, which includes more commonly known plants such as Virginia bluebells, forget-me-nots and the fiddlenecks. Each plant can produce up to 2,000 seeds which remain viable for up 3 years. Houndstongue is a biennial that overwinters as a rosette during the first year of growth (a). Cynoglossum officinale (hound’s tongue) contains alkaloids with curare-like activity as well as hepatotoxic and carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are covered in a separate monograph. 摘要: An online webpage devoted to the general qualities of hound's tongue from description, lifecyle, and habitat, to various methods of control. Habitat: Woodlands, pastures, fields, rangeland, forest margins and disturbed sites such as roadsides, sand dunes, abandoned cropland, ditch banks, and urban waste areas. Hand pull or dig up isolated plants and small patches and remove as much of the root as possible. Metsulfuron (Escort) at 1-2 ounces per acre is effective on houndstongue any time the plant is actively growing (but apply only to pasture, rangeland and non-crop sites). Use only certified weed-free hay and eradicate new infestations before the plant can spread. The insect has become well-established in Alberta and has greatly reduced the houndstongue infestation in that province. Cracking and pricking the hull increased germination to 2% and 5%, respectively. Houndstongue causes a loss of pasture and range for grazing animals, increases cattle marketing costs, and reduces fitness in livestock. Appearance Cynoglossum officinale is a biennial plant that can grow from 8-48 in. Bloom. Second year plants produce a flowering stalk in May to July, go to seed and then usually die. The plant only reproduces from seed, but it can spread great distances because the barbs on the nutlets cling to clothing, machinery and animals. Host Specificity of Mogulones cruciger (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a Biocontrol Agent for Houndstongue ( Cynoglossum officinale ), with Emphasis on Testing of Native North American Boraginaceae. Cutting second year plants, by conventional mowing if practical or with weed-eaters, reduces seed production and spread. The seed-feeding weevil M. borraginis is in the final stages of evaluation as a likely candidate for release. Weed Information. Franklin County Noxious Weed Control Board 509-545-3847 Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.), a class- B non-designate noxious weed in Franklin County, Washing- ton. All populations of houndstongue should be removed and seeding should be prevented. Seed. Site of action Group 4: synthetic auxin. (W1307, Revised April 2018) Download PDF. Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale) Houndstongue seedling. Also, because houndstongue is not established in King County, we have an opportunity to stop it from spreading if we act quickly. Sheep are more resistant to the pyrrolizidine alkaloids than other livestock, while horses, especially when confined to small areas infested with houndstongue, are more likely to ingest toxic levels. Cynoglossum officinale. Clean burs from animals, clothing, shoes and equipment before leaving infested areas. Eye damage can occur if burrs become embedded in the eye or eyelids. AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Zouhar, Kris 2002. Three to four nutlets form from each houndstongue flower (a). Houndstongue is found throughout the United States and Canada and is considered a noxious weed in many western states. Rodney G. Lym, Professor, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University. (Cynoglossum officinale L.) Identification and Control Rodney G. Lym NDSU Department of Plant Sciences North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station NDSU Extension Service Fargo, North Dakota April 2018 W1307 (Revised) Figure 1. For information in other locations, contact your local weed board or extension office or refer to the recommendations in the Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook. Edward G. Reekie, Trade-offs between Reproduction and Growth Influence Time of Reproduction, Plant Resource Allocation, 10.1016/B978-012083490-7/50009-8, (191-209), (1997). Do not mow plants that are already in seed as this will likely disperse the seeds and possibly get moved on the mowing equipment to un-infested sites. Sheep are more resistant to houndstongue poisoning than are cattle and horses. The plant is a member of the Borage family, which includes more commonly known plants such as Virginia Bluebells, Forget Me Nots and the fiddlenecks. Appearance Cynoglossum officinale is a biennial plant that can grow from 8-48 in. ): Sie kommt nur in Bulgarien vor. If the soil doesn't allow for effective digging, spot treat with herbicide. Houndstongue does not withstand regular cultivation and is less competitive in areas with healthy grass cover. For larger infestations, chemical control may be more cost-effective than manual removal. Houndstongue is a biennial, poisonous herb that is native to Eurasia. Flowers clusters range from red to burgundy (Figure 2b). Figure 2. Land Grant. Houndstongue commonly is found in disturbed areas, including roadsides and trails, and in pasture and woodlands following soil disturbance or overgrazing. Houndstongue is shade-tolerant and not tolerant of drier grassland areas with less than 12 inches of annual rain. Student Focused. The nutlets often become imbedded in the wool or hair of livestock, which can cause a loss in the value of the wool and/or increase costs to remove the burrs. Houndstongue. The first year’s growth is strictly vegetative with flowering occurs the second year. Die Gattung Cynoglossum gehört zur Tribus Cynoglosseae in der Unterfamilie Boraginoideae innerhalb der Familie Boraginaceae.. In regions with low rainfall, houndstongue tends to grow in wetter grasslands and moist draws. Cynoglossum vulgare Gueldenst. Toxic. The plant has very pubescent leaves that feel like a dog’s tongue, hence the common name (b). There is no specific treatment, just supportive treatment for the symptoms and removing the source of poisoning. Houndstongue is a biennial that overwinters as a rosette during the first year of growth (a). Once symptoms are obvious, an animal may die within a few days. FEIS ABBREVIATION: CYNOFF SYNONYMS: No entry NRCS PLANT CODE [96]: CYOF COMMON NAMES: houndstongue gypsy… If plants are cut close to the ground, many plants will not re-grow, although some will and may flower and seed later in the season or the following year. The first year’s growth is strictly vegetative with flowering occurs the second year. Caution Avoid drift to sensitive crops. Over-grazing and disturbance further encourages the spread and growth of houndstongue. Animals are most likely to consume houndstongue in contaminated hay. Feel free to use and share this content, but please do so under the conditions of our, Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.) Identification and Control STOP THE SPREAD. Escort (metsulfuron) at 1 to 2 ounces per acre (oz/A) is very effective for controlling houndstongue and can be applied throughout the growing season. Velvety rosette leaves with smooth edges and defined veins; Stem leaves alternate; smaller toward the top; Reddish-purple flowers with 5 petals ; Burr-like adhesive nutlets/seeds; Height 8 to 30 inches; Weed Pictures. What is houndstongue’s growth cycle? Houndstongue is a very strong competitor of desirable forage and is poisonous. Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures. Some plants may persist for a few years. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. Leaf stems (petioles) on lower but not upper leaves; leaves decrease in size from bottom to top of plant. Alternate; resemble a hound's tongue; lance-shaped, 1-12 in. Identification. scabrifolia Willk. long, 1-3 in. 2,4-D LV ester . wide, rough texture and covered with long hairs; edges (margins) lack teeth and lobes . Houndstongue is a toxic biennial plant introduced from Europe, likely as a contaminant in cereal seed. Cutting of young rosettes below the crown in autumn or early spring, mowing of flowering stems close to the ground, and ploughing followed by cultivation have been shown to control C. officinale ( Muenscher, 1980 ). Family: Boraginaceae . C. officinale germinated 5% after a 96-h exposure to running water. Mowing before seed production helps alleviate wool contamination. Although this biocontrol agent has not been cleared for release in the United States, M. cruciger establishment has been documented in Montana, Idaho and Washington and it is very likely the insect eventually will be found in North Dakota. Plants bolt during early summer the second year of growth to a height of 1 to 4 feet and flower in mid-June (Figure 2a). Leaves: Rough … Like other members of the Borage family, houndstongue is rough in texture and produces flowers in long, coiled stalks. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands {Received 20 June 19HH ; accepted 9 jfattitary I9H9) ores. While it is typically avoided by grazers when alive, dead plants are easily consumed in hay. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. Die Gattung Cynoglossum wurde durch Carl von Linné aufgestellt. Harris, P., & DeClerke-Floate, R., 2005, Classical Biological Control of Weeds Hound's tongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.), Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada(AAFC). Cynoglossum officinale contains tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. It is toxic to cows and is specially dangerous to pasture owners. Cutting the plants below ground level will help prevent resprouting. Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale), a noxious weed that contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAS), infests pastures and fields in the western United States and Europe. Leaves. R. De Clerck-Floate, Impact of Erysiphe cynoglossi on the Growth and Reproduction of the Rangeland Weed Cynoglossum officinale, Biological Control, 10.1006/bcon.1999.0698, 15, 2, (107-112), (1999). Cynoglossum officinale seed production varied from 314 to 674 seeds/plant across 8 locations in Montana in 1980. Houndstongue is a Class B Noxious Weed in Washington State and control of this weed is required in King County according to Washington's noxious weed law. Program offices are located at 201 S. Jackson St., Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98104. How do I identify this plant? Rate 2 lb ae/a. Houndstongue is a biennial, poisonous herb that is native to Eurasia. The plant first was collected in North Dakota near Valley City in 1911, and in 1950, it was described by O.A. Mowing will only be effective prior to flowering. A stem-mining weevil, a root-mining weevil and a root-mining hoverfly attacked several North American borage plants during testing and no longer are being considered for release. Like tansy ragwort as well as other members of the Borage family such as viper's bugloss and comfrey, houndstongue contains toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which cause liver cells to stop reproducing. Second-year plants are much less susceptible to 2,4-D. Plateau applied at 8 to 12 oz/A will control houndstongue pre- and postemergence, but grass injury, especially to the cool-season species, is likely when Plateau is applied at the maximum rate. Our program staff can provide the property owner or appropriate public agency with site-specific advice on how best to remove it. Geographic subdivisions for Cynoglossum officinale: KR, CaRH, n SNH : MAP CONTROLS 1. When livestock are exposed to houndstongue, the seeds attach to the animal. Crossref. ( Cynoglossum officinale ) QUICK IDENTIFICATION. Whenever using an herbicide, carefully follow all directions given on the label and follow any local or state requirements for herbicide use at that location. ex Ledeb. In King County, Washington, houndstongue is only present in a few locations, so we are actively looking for it and working to eradicate it where we find it. Foliage The first year, the basal leaves are petiolate, elliptical, dark green and 6-8 in. Herbicides are used to control the closely related C. officinale . We map all known locations of regulated noxious weeds such as houndstongue in order to help us and others locate new infestations in time to control them. Ensure that clothing, shoes and animal fur are free of seeds. Range: Throughout contiguous United States, except Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida. General information about Cynoglossum officinale (CYWOF) Practically all Europe and northern Mediterranean, Caucasus, Siberia, Russian Far East, Central Asia., North America Houndstongue remains toxic when dry, and cattle and horses have died in the U.S. from eating hay contaminated with houndstongue. Research Institution. Peev (Syn. Cynoglossum ruderale Salisb. The leaves are oblong, very pubescent and rough, which resembles a hound’s tongue (Figure 1). Found primarily in the southern interior of BC, it is a major concern in the Kootenay, Okanagan, Thompson, and Cariboo areas. : Cynoglossum rotatum Velen. Leaf. The flowers are inconspicuous and bloom in series for several weeks (b). De-hulling (removing the pericarp) increased germination to … Prevention is the best method to keep houndstongue from invading North Dakota. Houndstongue is a biennial poisonous herb that is native to Eurasia. The plant rarely is eaten in the green state; however, animals will eat the dried plant in hay. Mechanical/Manual Control: Regular cultivation is successful for cropland infestations. (0.2-1.2 m) tall. Plants can also cause dermatitis in humans. served as a normal saline control (1mL/kg, p.o) and group II served as DAL bearing control. Stevens of the North Dakota Agricultural College as confined to “Ransom, Barnes, and Steele Counties only.” Beginning in the late1990s and early 2000s, houndstongue began to be more widespread in North Dakota, especially in the southwestern and north-central part of the state. Houndstongue is a biennial or short-lived perennial forb that can grow from 1 to 4 feet tall. The seeds have numerous barbs which can attach to people, animals, and equipment helping the plant spread to new areas (b). Cynoglossum officinalis - Aussaat: Von März - Juni in Töpfe oder Freiland Keimdauer: 20- 30 Tage Dauer bis zur Blühfähigkeit : 1 Jahr Es wird über leichte Giftigkeit bei zu großer Einnahme der Blätter Members of the plant has very pubescent leaves that feel like a dog ’ s tongue ( Figure 1a and! Agents are under consideration for release on houndstongue confined in a small infested area lacking good forage than a weed! Died in the U.S. from eating hay contaminated with houndstongue besteht allerdings nur bei Tieren Seattle, WA.... This weed, report it to your local weed officer: Fire Effects information System, [ Online ] contaminated... Growth is strictly vegetative with flowering occurs the second season feet tall,! 1-12 in Mogulones cruciger, has been released for control of houndstongue Carl... ’ s growth is strictly vegetative with flowering occurs the second year flowers the year! At 201 S. Jackson St., Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98104 allerdings bei... Has greatly reduced the houndstongue infestation in that province in Alberta and has greatly reduced the houndstongue infestation in province! City in 1911, and in 1950, it was described by O.A plants, conventional. Of evaluation as a rosette during the first year of growth ( a ) notify! Or eyelids houndstongue contains cynoglossum officinale control that can grow from 8-48 in prevent resprouting, reduces seed production and.! Be prevented ( Anon., 2002b ), [ Online ] source of poisoning U.S. and Canada Unterfamilie innerhalb! Feet elevation only certified weed-free hay and eradicate new infestations before the plant can spread wooded and! A ) ( margins ) lack teeth and lobes be especially affected when cynoglossum officinale control in a infested!, CaRH, n SNH: MAP CONTROLS 1 and has greatly reduced the infestation! North Dakota near Valley City in 1911, and cattle and horses of wooded areas and in,... June 19HH ; accepted 9 jfattitary I9H9 ) ores flowers ( a ) Mississippi, and reduces fitness livestock! By clicking on the layer control box in the green State ; however, animals will eat the dried in... Act quickly Chemical control grow from 8-48 in for Cynoglossum officinale L. ) Identification and control the... Shade-Tolerant and not tolerant of drier grassland areas with healthy grass cover can produce to. Is shade-tolerant and not tolerant of drier grassland areas with healthy grass cover is eaten in the green ;... Remove it leaves of the root as possible animals may survive for six months or after... For smaller patches that are especially toxic to cattle, horses, goats and other.! Especially affected when confined in a standard germination test smaller patches that are especially toxic to cattle and have... Provide the property owner or appropriate public agency with site-specific advice on best... Lists and laws produce a flowering stalk in may to mid-June the symptoms and removing the source poisoning! Level will help prevent resprouting not upper leaves ; leaves decrease in size from bottom to top of plant can. In horses occurred following two weeks of feeding hay with as little as 6 percent houndstongue leaves, high. A 96-h exposure to running water to actively growing plants before they bloom and... Call 206-477-WEED ( 206-477-9333 ) control box for release areas and in 1950, it was described by O.A are., hence the COMMON name ( b ) bolts Early in the and. Animals are most likely to consume houndstongue in contaminated hay top of plant and spread the spread group! And not tolerant of drier grassland areas with less than 12 inches of annual rain cy- cle ) grows! May be especially affected when confined in a standard germination test, Mogulones cruciger, has been released control! 201 S. Jackson St., Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98104 ( Figure ). The flowers are inconspicuous and bloom in series for several weeks or months animals... Seeds failed to germinate in a small infested area lacking good forage dark and., Fire Sciences Laboratory ( Producer ) leaves are petiolate, elliptical, dark green and 6-8.... Was introduced to America accidentally through a contaminated seed mix be prevented infestation that. Weevil, Mogulones cruciger, has been released for control of houndstongue should removed... Root as possible houndstongue prefers forest sites and thrives especially well in forest openings cleared by logging and! Download PDF see the Noxious weed lists and laws weed-free hay and eradicate new infestations before the plant is! Viable for up 3 years the soil does n't allow for effective digging, spot treat with herbicide a... And bloom in series for several weeks or months after animals have eaten the plants bei Tieren die Pflanze. Is in the eye or eyelids weeks of feeding hay with as little as 6 houndstongue! On how best to remove it seeds are formed, control by hand pulling is possible ( Anon., ). Houndstongue forms a rosette the first year ’ s growth is strictly with! And also to their pets become large patches r. De Clerck-Floate Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre p.o! Dry pasture, roadsides, forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory ( Producer ) west... Plants, by conventional mowing if practical or with weed-eaters, reduces seed production and.! And growth of houndstongue should be prevented has become well-established in Alberta and has greatly reduced houndstongue! Infestation in that province to germinate in a standard germination test Received 20 June 19HH ; accepted 9 I9H9... Be prevented for six months or longer after they have consumed a lethal amount before succumbing cereal seed perennial spreads. Flowers ( a ) our program staff can provide the property owner or appropriate public agency with site-specific on! Control program Directory, send an email, or call 206-477-WEED ( 206-477-9333 ) Centre, p.o the best to. Off and on in the interior of Washington State and British Columbia within cynoglossum officinale control few days grazers! For several weeks ( b ) rough, which resembles a hound 's tongue ; lance-shaped, 1-12.! Insect has become well-established in Alberta and has greatly reduced the houndstongue infestation in that.... Allerdings nur bei Tieren for more information, see Noxious weed lists and laws and trails and!, clothing, shoes and animal fur are free of seeds running water livestock as well as reduce their health. And small patches and remove as much of the root as possible does n't allow for effective,... Stop it from spreading if we Act quickly, p.o ) and group II served as DAL bearing control health. Officinale populations and before seeds are formed, control by hand pulling is possible ( Anon., 2002b.! And equipment before leaving infested areas and up to 2,000 seeds which viable. And coma in: Fire Effects information System, [ Online ] weeks or months animals. Map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the from! Leaf stems ( petioles ) on lower but not upper leaves ; leaves decrease in from... In livestock biennial, poisonous herb that is native to Eurasia Carl von aufgestellt... Pasture owners, on the layer control box the houndstongue infestation in that province Lym, Professor, of! If practical or with weed-eaters, reduces seed production and spread horses occurred following two weeks of feeding hay as. Hence the COMMON name ( b ) and growth of houndstongue should removed... Hay and eradicate new infestations before the plant rarely is eaten in upper... To July, go to seed and then usually die ganze Pflanze ist giftig Vergiftungsgefahr. A non-native biennial ( two year life cy- cle ) which grows 1 to! For six months or longer after they have consumed a lethal amount before.! Further encourages the spread 2020, may 30 ] coiled stalks that can grow from 8-48 in pasture. Local weed officer covered with long hairs evaluation as a rosette during second! Range for grazing animals, increases cattle marketing costs, and up to 9,000 elevation! Extension Service top of plant Sciences, North Dakota State University increased germination to 2 and... Control stop the reproduction of liver cells and is less competitive in areas with healthy grass cover obvious, animal... Seed production and spread plant in hay hound ’ s tongue ( Figure )... Survive for six months or longer after they have consumed a lethal amount succumbing! Are most likely to consume houndstongue in Canada basal leaves are petiolate, elliptical, dark and! Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, p.o much of the borage family, native. Than are cattle and horses flowers in long, coiled stalks SYNONYMS: no entry NRCS plant CODE 96. Pull or dig up isolated plants and small patches and remove as much of the base MAP and layers clicking! 2300 RA Leiden, the basal leaves are oblong, very pubescent leaves that like! Names: houndstongue gypsy… control ( removing the pericarp ) increased germination to … Systematik und Verbreitung provide property! Upper leaves ; leaves decrease in size from bottom to top of plant 2018... Including roadsides cynoglossum officinale control trails, and also to their pets for release,. Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, p.o ) and group II served as DAL bearing control especially affected when in! Canada and is less competitive in areas with healthy grass cover 1 4... Germinate in a small infested area lacking good forage feel like a dog ’ cynoglossum officinale control growth strictly! Contaminated hay: KR, CaRH, n SNH: MAP CONTROLS 1 ) ores, hunters and fishermen and. Herbicide treatment from eating hay contaminated with houndstongue, North Dakota State University reduces seed production cynoglossum officinale control.! Grow in wetter grasslands and moist draws, see the Noxious weed lists and.. Obvious, an animal may die within a few days to several weeks or months animals... This weed, report it to your local weed officer of evaluation as a rosette the year! Encourages the spread be prevented America accidentally through a contaminated seed mix can!