The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border. Intermittent warfare continued until 1817. , Cut off to the north by desert, to the south by the Mapuche, to the east by the Andes Mountains, and to the west by the ocean, Chile became one of the most centralized, homogeneous colonies in Spanish America.  The Chilean internet country code is ".cl". However, the Roman Catholic church for mostly historical and social reasons enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment. ", "Latin American Herald Tribune – Isabel Allende Named to Council of Cervantes Institute", http://188.8.131.52/Ebooks/Writereaddate/52_2017.pdf, "The strongest National League in the World 2011", World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Chile, Countries and dependencies of South America, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, Initiative for Infrastructure Integration of South America, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chile&oldid=993018429, States and territories established in 1818, Spanish-speaking countries and territories, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2013, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Mapudungun-language text, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Articles containing Rapa Nui-language text, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from November 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. , The commander in chief of the Chilean Army is General Humberto Oviedo Arriagada. On 5 August 2010 the access tunnel collapsed at the San José copper and gold mine in the Atacama Desert near Copiapó in northern Chile, trapping 33 men 700 metres (2,300 ft) below ground. One-third of Chile is covered by the towering ranges of the Andes. Jose Miguel Insulza, a Chilean national, was elected Secretary General of the Organization of American States in May 2005 and confirmed in his position, being re-elected in 2009. To the south is the Norte Chico, extending to the Aconcagua river. This is also known as the "triangulation" which was made to fix the boundary problem between Chile and Peru. Ir a Sur, Lagos y Volcanes. The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level.  Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta, La Serena and Coquimbo are the main summer centers in the north, and Pucón on the shores of Lake Villarrica is the main center in the south. The Chilean relief consists of the central depression, which crosses the country longitudinally, flanked by two mountain ranges that make up about 80% of the territory: the Andes mountains to the east-natural border with Bolivia and Argentina in the region of Atacama and the Coastal Range west-minor height from the Andes. Chili. Other important folk singer and researcher on folklore and Chilean ethnography, is Margot Loyola. Chili vs. chile. East of the Andes, on the continent, or north of it, on the island of Tierra del Fuego are located relatively flat plains, which in the Strait of Magellan cover large areas. The National Health Fund (Fonasa), created in 1979, is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile. It occupies a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Mal:Country data Chile is an internal data container not intended to be transcluded directly. It is an official national event celebrated in May every year. However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, of which Chile is a signatory. , The unemployment rate was 6.4% in April 2013. The two mountain ranges intersect, virtually eliminating the intermediate depression. Only if the leading coalition ticket out-polls the second place coalition by a margin of more than 2-to-1 does the winning coalition gain both seats, which tends to lock the legislature in a roughly 50–50 split. By 2015, the major religion in Chile remained Christianity (68%), with an estimated 55% of Chileans belonging to the Roman Catholic church, 13% to various Evangelical churches, and just 7% adhering to any other religion. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Chile is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered. Among the list of other Chilean poets are Carlos Pezoa Véliz, Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas, Pablo de Rokha, Nicanor Parra and Raúl Zurita. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. The flag of Chile is similar to the Flag of Texas, although the Chilean flag is 21 years older. Privatization of the telephone system began in 1988; Chile has one of the most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America with a modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities and domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations. The largest agglomerations according to the 2002 census are Greater Santiago with 5.6 million people, Greater Concepción with 861,000 10 main differences between American English and British English. , Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady economic growth in Chile and have more than halved poverty rates. Isabel Allende is the best-selling Chilean novelist, with 51 millions of her novels sold worldwide. Although illegal under the Chilean constitution, the court supported and strengthened Pinochet's soon-to-be seizure of power.  In January 2006, Chileans elected their first female president, Michelle Bachelet Jeria, of the Socialist Party, defeating Sebastián Piñera, of the National Renewal party, extending the Concertación governance for another four years. It is funded by the public. It is characterized by the presence of the Atacama desert, the most arid in the world.  According to the 2002 national census, Chile's foreign-born population has increased by 75% since 1992.. Chile is a country of poets. The central valley is characterized by several species of cacti, the hardy espinos, the Chilean pine, the southern beeches and the copihue, a red bell-shaped flower that is Chile's national flower. It also has the legend Por la razón o la fuerza (By reason or by force). In a plebiscite on 5 October 1988, Pinochet was denied a second eight-year term as president (56% against 44%).  Their waters mainly flow from Andean snowmelt in the summer and winter rains. , Admiral Julio Leiva Molina directs around 25,000-person Chilean Navy, including 2,500 Marines. The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence. Chile completed a 2-year non-permanent position on the UN Security Council in January 2005.  Chile's total trade with China reached US$8.8 billion in 2006, representing nearly 66 percent of the value of its trade relationship with Asia. , Standard & Poor's gives Chile a credit rating of AA-. , In 1978 Chile was administratively divided into regions, and in 1979 subdivided into provinces and these into communes. Chile Overview - Overview - Customs and Culture - Diet and Recipes - Language - Religion - Students Life - Interesting Facts People Government - Politics Geography Economy News - Weather History Photos - Video Travel En Español Sources United States Edition In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose. Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants (frigates). Chilli (plural chillies or chillis) is typically used in British English. , On 26 June 1945, Chile participated as a founding member of the United Nations being among 50 countries that signed the United Nations Charter in San Francisco, California. In 2005, tourism grew by 13.6 percent, generating more than 4.5 billion dollars of which 1.5 billion was attributed to foreign tourists. , Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile has been an active participant in the international political arena. , In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him (the Strait of Magellan) thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile. The central port city of Valparaíso, which is World Heritage with its unique architecture, is also popular. As a result, the intermediate depression sinks in the sea, while the coastal mountains rise to a series of archipelagos, such as Chiloé and the Chonos, disappearing in Taitao peninsula, in the parallel 47°S. 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