This includes many consultation processes among local/regional church authorities and other local Christians to determine key terms, the best expressions and phrases to accurately and effectively communicate the message of Scripture to the wider community. The point of the requisite is that we have to be willing to change any translation we do, either to correct it or improve it. MS. 28. Another way to look at the situation: if there’s no crying in baseball, there certainly is no place for crying in translation. If you are not familiar with the controversy, you may have found that last phrase, “if any,” puzzling. GOD’S WORD Translation Bible was produced using a theory of translation that combines accuracy with understandability. Palestinian, Sinaitic, Peshitta The nearer other occurrences are contextually to the passage being translated, the better, but it is often the case that these words are rare. How do we know they are right, you might ask. All of these changes inevitably happen over time, leading to a revision every ten to twenty years, sometimes sooner. I mentioned this earlier. It also includes deep knowledge of … At the core of this effort was a full-time translation team composed of biblical scholars who served as translators, English experts who constantly reviewed English style, and … I eventually learned that if I wanted to know what the word meant, I was supposed to look it up in those works and read it in context. – Christian Publishing House Blog, Can the Bible Ever Be Translated Perfectly into English? The previous standard was the Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (short title) by Brown, Driver, and Briggs. Again, I have found it a very good idea to try to think of the work I have submitted as no longer mine (legally, it isn’t if you don’t hold the copyright). Since the reviewers may have no knowledge of the OL’s, it may make sense to have someone independent of the committees screen the reviews to see what suggestions are viable and save valuable committee time. Uniquely among English Bible translations, the Amplified Bible supplies multiple alternative meanings for each key word in the biblical text. 16th century The philosophy includes such matters as literal vs. dynamic/functional equivalence and priorities. There are, of course, varying degrees of interpretive translation; some would classify the NIV as moderately interpretive, and place The Message on the far end of the scale. I can do the same thing in studying the grammatical structure of a phrase or clause in the Bible. I do, however, know of one researcher who did, since it clearly eliminated the alternative that Paul was forbidding women to be in positions of authority over men. The Great Bible (1539) The translation team must be good listeners, pay careful attention to input and exercise humility as they work through multiple changes and drafts. They translate the Greek word authenteo, which occurs nowhere else in the Bible. This obviously takes a lot of coordination and administration, so it can be a large and expensive undertaking. 1122 C.E. And our sophisticated software enables complex grammatical research in Hebrew and Aramaic as well as in Greek. Checking:  The translation team works through the translation with experienced consultants who have deep knowledge of the Biblical text. ... History of the English Bible. If this is what Paul meant, then it is conceivable that women can act in authority over men provided that they are duly chosen or elected to do so, and do not abuse the privilege. But if that is not the case, then a translator has to be content with the reading chosen for the text by the NA editors (or the chosen reading from another Greek New Testament). Question: "How does the translation process impact the inspiration, inerrancy, and infallibility of the Bible?" What do people understand when they hear or see the new translation? I can cite two examples of areas that could be impacted by these factors. A general editor can be designated to make final decisions about the reviews and the entire translation itself, or the reviews can simply be sent back to the corresponding committees for their consideration. Within the past 100 years, there has been tremendous growth in the amount of quality English Bible translations available. The Rheims-Douay Bible (1582-1610) The main requisite is also a point of theology: to understand that no translation is inspired, therefore, none is necessarily error-free or beyond improvement. The New Living Translation was first published in 1996. Instead, I found limited definitions and a lot of references to Greek works, with very short quotations. Many may take issue with me, but NT Greek is essentially classical in its grammar, and Smyth did an excellent job in writing his grammar. Background. Revised New Testament, New American Bible (1986) Another requisite for Bible translation is to be willing to keep on working beyond the point of mental exhaustion. Georgian Version Shortly after its initial publication, the Bible Translation Committee began a process of further committee review and translation refinement. Some or even most may be out of the translator’s hands because of marketplace or time constraints. On the other hand, it also cites “to commit murder” for one classical source. (Bible translation consultants abide by a set of international Evangelical standards for checking translated Scripture). Some textual critics maintain that the goal actually is to find the prototype that accounts for all ancient manuscripts of the Bible in existence, whether that prototype is the autograph or not. I check the references I find in the standard NT lexicon, but I also use the tools that cover Greek literature outside the NT. So far the greater accuracy has not resulted in any doctrinal changes, nor can I see that ever happening. The New English Bible (1970) that there are clear standards. Bible translation is a complex process, requiring great attention to detail. If anything, these two warring parties are tending to find a little common ground, though they still maintain their principal differences. For Hebrew, Davidson’s Hebrew Syntax, and for Greek, Smyth’s Greek Grammar. Hopefully, by that time the translators will have adjusted to the critical atmosphere well enough to be able to read the reviews without getting nosebleeds. Over time there are inevitable changes to the RL, which for our purpose is English (I can only address American English). Minor revisions are needed just to fix errors that somehow manage to survive the final proofing process. On a higher level, however, the translator ideally should not trust any lexicon, not even the unabridged ones. The translators’ skills are another limiting factor. MS. 157. The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. The idea is that they tried to take the original meaning of the text (not just the individual word) and translate that into the (then) common language. This is especially important for Greek because Greek writers had a good deal more flexibility in word order than we find in English and many other languages, thanks to the complex grammatical indicators in ancient Greek. The process of rewriting the books of the Bible was not always perfect—sometimes mistakes were introduced or words were added or dropped. [1881] Westcott and Hort Greek New Testament As precise as DNA is, it is useless to identify people if their DNA profiles are not archived somewhere. They can say whatever they want; I just know that I cannot say the same about translation. So potentially, at least, I can now find a match to a difficult word in a source outside the Bible that will help me nail down its meaning in the Bible. I think it is fair to say that if the translation is to be a DE/FE, then it is interpretive in philosophy, and a formal decision to that effect may not be necessary. View ChristianPublishingHouse’s profile on Facebook, View edward-d-andrews-87250224?trk=hp-identity-name’s profile on LinkedIn, View ChristianPublish’s profile on YouTube, View christianpublishing’s profile on Vimeo, View ChristianpublishersOrg01’s profile on Google+, Recommended Reading by Christian Publishing House, The Doctrine of Inerrancy of Scripture and Biblical Infallibility, Understanding Islam and the Rise of Radical Islam, Literal Translation vs Interpretive Translation, SERIOUSLY FLAWED BIBLICAL CRITICISM ASSAULT ON THE BIBLE, NT Vol. Coptic Versions In short, closest natural equivalence concentrates on accurately translating the meaning of the original languages into natural English. Early Papyri—100-175 C.E. MS. 81. Thus at least some portions of the Bible have been translated into 3,386 languages. The translator needs to be competently bi- to quadrilingual in the OL’s of the Bible (depending on his assignment) and the target or receptor language (RL) of the people for whom he is translating. Lexicographers, i.e. Only the unabridged versions of these lexicons, please! P8 P9 P12 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19 P24 P28 P37 P50 P51 P53 P70 P78 P80 P86 P88 P89 P91 P92 P114 P119 P120 P129 P131 P132 P134, 250-300 C.E. Then, if the work is being done by committee, one or more members of the committee will be tasked with producing a translation of the assigned passage. In my work, I do a complete search of any word that is difficult to nail down in its exact meaning in a particular passage. August 25, 2015 August 25, 2015. There are also grammatical constructions that are correct English and were common in the past, but now may be misinterpreted by readers. There are jolly good fellows who have ruled that the 1611 KJV is the inspired translation of the Bible, so they have done something like this by virtually freezing the OL texts in the state that they were when the KJV translators consulted them. To simplify the discussion from this point on, I hope you will forgive me if I use the traditional (and possibly outdated) male gender pronouns, with the understanding between us that women and men are equally well-suited to the work. Charles Thomson’s Bible (1808) However, the NASB translators, after much consideration and prayer, came to the conclusion that it was important to avoid even the slightest implication that the fulfillment of prophecies in these contexts was uncertain. The Amplified Bible. The result is that I find it highly applicable to NT Greek. To beginning Greek students, a complex passage can seem almost like a jigsaw puzzle in which the words have to be rearranged to make sense, and once they have done that they feel as if they have “solved” the puzzle. Also, depending on the translation philosophy and the budget, English stylists may be brought in to make improvements. What New Testament Textual Studies Sources Do We Have? Yes, I did. THE TRANSLATION PROCESS 1. [1522] Textus Receptus While I cannot address this subject at length,  it needs to be addressed, to lay the foundation for you, the reader. They are just too subtle to result in revisions to DE/FE’s. View all posts by Christian Publishing House. Moreover, other scholars are, of course, free to disagree with me; I would just expect them to examine the same sources that I did. What Does the Bible Really Teach About ________? Coverdale and the First Complete Printed Bible in English (1535) It’s a mental and physical uneasiness that I feel, something that would not respond to an aspirin or an antacid. In that case, they do not choose any alternate readings. There is still the “proof” stage, when the printer provides the publisher with the text just as it will look in the final product. What Do We Know About the Early Christian Copyists? The Old Testament was translated from Hebrew to Greek. Every year, they solicit (and receive) input from scholars, pastors, missionaries, and laypeople. The Jerusalem Bible (1966) the thoughts of men are widened with the process of the suns. Now that we have the essential tools–and we are, of course, assuming that the translator has the necessary expertise to use them–certain decisions must be made. The New American Bible (1970) If the translators of an English Bible have been tasked with choosing the best readings–i.e. This is particularly clear for the NT. * The portion was first translated individually by each member of the company. Heinz W. Cassirer’s New Testament (1989) Answer: This question deals with three very important issues: inspiration, preservation, and translation. Being “entirely comfortable” with the passage means that it is just as easy for the translator to read it in the OL as reading anything in his own first language. [1966–2015] United Bible Societies Greek New Testament – 5th edition, The Wycliffite Bible (1382; 1388) The New English Translation or NET Bible is an internet-based version, although it is also available in book form. They may not affect doctrine or theology, but they do result in changes in the wording of the original texts, and the notes are there to allow translators to decide whether to choose an alternate reading or to accept the reading chosen by the editors for the text. The committee approach provides at least a greater impression of credibility. Ongoing Translation: Though we often talk about the completion of a translation, it is actually an ongoing process. This includes deep knowledge of Scripture and its words, meanings and contexts. Jewish Translations 142 Translations Sponsored by the Jewish Publication Society (1917; 1985) In one instance that I’m especially happy about, I was dealing with a phrase that contemporary scholars considered “bad Greek,” as they often call the apparent anomalies found in the NT. I’ll just mention one more requisite; then we’ll move on to the translation process itself. I mention Aramaic because there are several chapters in Daniel and a few passages elsewhere originally written in Aramaic, not Hebrew. Incidentally, many of the changes in our understanding of the OL’s are likely to be seen only in literal translations. The latter stages are unnecessary for the solo translator and thus make the overall committee process less efficient by comparison, but the final product is that of multiple experts and may, therefore, be better than that of the solo translator. Bible translation is done in the community with great care. Readers can gain fresh insight into the richness of Scripture, and into the process of translation from the original languages. Why now, at this time in world history? Several definitions are offered in the standard NT lexicon (BDAG), along with a number of references to extra-biblical sources. Before translation begins, good preparation is essential. see proceed.] 1. the act of proceeding; continued forward movement; procedure; progress; advance. Once every comment from a reviewer has been addressed, and every mistake corrected, the translator is still not done. And that’s not all. At some point, they will reach a consensus on what they consider the best translation possible thus far. Those who advocate placing women in the highest levels of church leadership would argue that Paul does not actually bar them from these positions, however. He has authored ninety-five books. I have been able to do this thanks to my computerized resources in Greek, and I concluded that the word simply means to exercise one’s own authority in a given situation, without any negative connotation. The New Revised Standard Version (1990) These Key Principles, developed in 2009, would help to guide the continuing process. Memorizing either the OT or the NT in their OL’s would be quite an accomplishment but would not render you fluent in the OL’s themselves. True enough about Smyth, but I make no apology for him. Fortunately, these errors are about as rare as you would expect, like getting a compliment from the IRS. At some point in the history of the language, “dumb” came to be regularly understood as synonymous with “stupid” or “unintelligent,” perhaps because there seem to be many more people like that than there are people unable to speak. The best that we can do is choose one or more lexicons for each OL that give us word meanings or point us in the right directions, and grammars that explain to us how the words are put together to form concepts, such as clauses of one kind or another. The original NASB translators (I worked with some of them but was not one) found “dumb” in the ASV referring to the inability to speak, and at that time they did not feel that the word would be confusing or problematic for readers. For the Old Testament (OT), the standard Hebrew/Aramaic text is the Masoretic text published as Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS). But if we rule out murder as an option for authenteo in 1 Timothy 2:12, the only fruitful course of research left is to examine the use of the word in extra-biblical contexts. Ninth century In the old days, the best a translator could do was to rely on the lexicon for references to other sources, and then hope that he could look up the other sources somewhere. Again, I would classify it as “ acceptable, ” I was using greater-uncertainty! The labor of more than 25 years to complete process of bible translation translations in various languages profiles are archived! 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